Although hard water doesn’t pose any major health-related risks, it has numerous disadvantages that make the water softening process so useful.
One of the most effective ways to soften hard water is by using a water softener, which is a device or whole-house filtration system that incorporates resin beads as a type of ion exchange material to remove calcium and magnesium ions from hard water.
If you want to say goodbye to white spots on clean dishes or prevent skin dryness and irritation, keep reading to learn more about what’s inside the water softener and how these ion exchange resin beads work.
The Basics of Water Softening
Water softening is the process of removing calcium and magnesium ions (sometimes iron ions) from water through the ion exchange mechanism. So basically, it’s an effective method for treating one of the most common household problems of having hard water.
To reduce hardness and minerals in water, you can use a whole-house water softener filter. Aquasure Harmony Series Water Softener from Amazon is one of the top-rated options.
The advantages of water softening include:
- Preventing scale formation in pipes, fixtures, and household appliances
- Increasing solubility of soaps, detergents, and other household chemicals, making them more effective
- Reducing residues and spots on surfaces, objects, and kitchenware
- Preventing clogged pores that can lead to acne or eczema
- Reducing skin dryness and irritation
What Is Water Softener Resin?
Water softener systems consist of multiple components, including a resin tank. This is where water enters the softener to flow through resin beads and exchange hard mineral ions for soft ions.
Water softener resin is a synthetic plastic, usually polystyrene-type gel resin. Resin beads are porous materials that range in size from 0.3 to 1.2mm.
So, next time you think of water softener resin, imagine tiny plastic beads with a brownish color.
How Does Water Softener Resin Work?
Resin beads in a water softener participate in the process called ion exchange. This is when calcium and magnesium ions are replaced with sodium ions to make the water softer.
Calcium and magnesium ions are attracted to sodium-charged resin beads that are electrostatically sensitive. As spherical resin beads capture calcium and magnesium ions, sodium ions (sometimes potassium ions) are released in exchange.
Keep in mind that the resin beads themselves are negatively charged, which explains the fact that calcium and magnesium ions are attracted to them.
How to Use / Replace Water Softener Resin?
As resin is the component of water softening devices, you cannot actually use them separately.
When setting up a water softener system for the first time, you won’t have to worry about the resin beads. However, if it’s time to replace resin, knowing how to drain and fill the resin tank properly is essential.
General steps for putting or replacing resin in a water softener are:
- Turning the control valve off
- Detach the water softener from electrical connections
- Remove the valve head or lid
- Draining the resin tank
- Inserting a new riser tube
- Pouring new resin
- Screwing the valve head back
- Turning the system on
For detailed instructions for water softener resin or media replacement, check out this video tutorial by Gary the Water Guy.
Choosing the Right Water Softener Resin
Choosing resin beads for your water softener is relatively straightforward as there are very few choices from different price ranges.
Generally speaking, there’s little to no difference between water softener resins, even if they are from different price categories.
The main differences are related to the pricing and packaging. Along with that, some companies sell pre-measured bags of resin beads, which are usually more expensive but easier to use as no further measurement is required.
That being said, choosing water softener resin is really about your personal preferences and specific needs.
Despite the fact that most resin beads are identical, there are two main types of resin that manufacturers recommend for water softener systems. These are standard cation resin and fine mesh resin beads.
- Standard Cation Resin – used for removing regular hardness (calcium and magnesium ions)
- Fine Mesh Resin – used for removing iron along with calcium and magnesium
If you want to filter medium levels of iron as well, it’s recommended to use fine mesh resin as it’ll perform slightly better than an 8% standard cation resin.
Best Water Softener Resin Replacements from Amazon
|Water Softener Resin||Volume||Bead Capacity|
|Water Softener Resin Media Replacement||½ cu ft||16,000|
|Purolite C-100E Cationic Resin Replacement for Water Softener||1 cu ft||64,000|
|Aquasure Harmony Series Fine Mesh Water Softening Resin||¼ cu ft||8,000|
|Watts RV Pro Replacement Water Softener Resin||⅓ cu ft||21,000|
|Indion HCRSN-10 Softening Resin||1 cu ft||64,000|
To give you a better idea of how water softener resins work, we answer 10 common questions homeowners ask when using filtration systems to get rid of hardness mineral ions.
Q1. How long does water softener resin last?
According to most manufacturers, the standard resin can last up to 10 years when cleaned and maintained properly.
However, even if you take good care of your water softener resin, the level of chlorine in the water that is being filtered also affects its lifespan.
If the chlorine level is 1 ppm or higher, the resin lifespan may be cut in half. In such cases, engineers recommend dechlorinating water using a carbon filter before it enters the softener system.
Q2. How much does water softener resin cost?
On average, 1 cubic foot of resin beads costs around $150.
Still, the price depends on a number of factors, and quality is not always among them.
In fact, most resin beads are of the same or very similar quality, but the manufacturers have decided to price them differently.
Besides, the packaging also influences the cost. Eco-friendly packages with popular brand logos are usually more on the expensive side.
Lastly, pre-measured water softener resin may also cost more as they don’t require additional measuring. So, if you’re looking for an affordable option, consider purchasing resin beads in bulk.
Q3. How to clean and maintain the water softener resin tank?
Resin beads, themselves, don’t require cleaning as they should be recharged with salt regularly. However, even if this is the case, you should clean the resin tank with a special cleanser every few months.
Softener Mate by Pro Products is a water softener system cleaner that restores and even extends the life of the resin bed by removing mineral build-up.
This video shares basic water softener cleaning and maintenance tips for beginners.
Q4. How is water softener resin recharged?
The recharge or regeneration process occurs when hardness mineral ions are flushed out by means of a brine solution (sodium chloride). As a matter of fact, water softener systems recharge themselves using the salt that is loaded into the machine.
Q5. Is water softener resin food-safe?
Most water softeners use food-grade resin beads that are FDA-approved. That being said, water softener resin doesn’t make water toxic and it can definitely be used for drinking and cooking.
While the water filtered by resin beads is totally safe for consumption, you should never ingest these plastic pieces.
Some are afraid that resin beads may escape from the tank and end up in the water you drink. Such claims are totally inaccurate.
And if your softened water seems to taste different, it’s not due to the toxicity of resin beads. Instead, the removal of mineral ions makes the water taste more neutral when compared to hard water.
Q6. How to tell if my water softener resin needs replacement?
Water softener resin can recharge itself, but it may still need replacement. Some signs that you need to replace the resin beads are:
- Water has developed a strange taste and/or odor
- Water quality has been decreased
- You’ve noticed rust and leaks on your pipes and fixtures
- There are white spots on your kitchenware
- Your water costs are going up for no obvious reason
- Water pressure has dropped randomly
If you observe any of these signs, be sure to replace water softener resin beads in time to avoid additional damage.
Q7. How often should I replace resin in my water softener?
Generally speaking, water softener resin can last up to 10 years when cleaned and maintained regularly. However, when filtering chlorinated water, you may need to replace resin beads in about 4-6 years.
It all depends on the usage and the type of minerals present in the water. Just pay attention to your water softener device as well as the water quality to determine whether you need to drain and refill the resin tank.
Q8. Can I restore the capacity of water softener resin?
The capacity of resin beads is restored when the salt solution from the brine tank flushes the resin tank to replace mineral ions with sodium ions. This is done automatically and there is no need for manual involvement.
To ensure that your water softener works properly, clean the brine tank and add salt as needed. Keep in mind that there’s no need to drain and refill the salt tank.
Q9. How can I troubleshoot some common issues that can arise with water softener resin?
By understanding what could possibly be wrong with your water softener resin, you can easily troubleshoot the problem and find a way to fix it.
Some common water softener resin issues include:
- Decreased water quality, debris, and odors when resin beads need replacement
- Decreased capacity when resin beads need regeneration
- Resin beads escaping from the tank due to damaged water softener screen
- Reduced pressure in pipes and build-up on fixtures when resin beads should be recharged or replaced
Always check the user’s manual for detailed instructions on how to troubleshoot your specific water softener.
Q10. What are the eco-friendly options for water softener resin disposal?
Water softener resin is composed of plastic beads that should never be discarded in nature. These tiny pieces won’t degrade, meaning that they will cause harm to our planet.
Also, you should avoid pouring resin tank liquid or resin particles into drains.
You should always check the regulations in your area. Depending on where you live, there might be slightly different rules about disposing of water softener resin the right way.
Summing up, water softener resin is an essential component of these water filtration systems. Resin beads go into a designated resin tank and participate in the ion exchange process.
Resin beads in a water softener device are responsible for exchanging calcium, magnesium, and sometimes iron ions with sodium ions.
Understanding how resin beads work helps homeowners make the most out of water softening systems.
With proper cleaning and regular maintenance, you’ll not only ensure high-quality soft water at home but also make your filtration machine last much longer.